Aikido Yoshinkan Glossary
Aikido is a Japanese martial art and the traditionally many training techniques, and team concept are said in Japanese. Of course, this does not mean that we need to buy dictionaries and begin learn learning samurai’s language. Gradually, in the dojo, you will naturally get used to the different terms and they will clearly understand them.
Below are the most common Aikido terms and phrases, as well as explanations of their meanings. That is an explanation, not a word-to-word translation from the Japanese. Ultimately, the beginner’s goal is not in learning the intricacies of the language of the country of the rising sun, but in the correct perception of commands and concepts to adequately respond to them and know what is needed to be done.
Dojo (додзьо) - training room. Literally translation - «place to follow Budo path».
Tatami - Japanese sport ground cover. Earlier were from straw. Now are made from the polyurethane foam.
Dogi - training clothes. Often is called “kimono”. It is more general term that is not totally correct but people are used to it.
Obi - Belt.
Hakama - Traditional Japanese clothes. Wide pants-skirt to hide legs’ movements.
Sensei - Teacher. Literally – “born earlier”. Such way martial arts instructors are called traditionally.
O-sensei (O-Sensei) - Great teacher. In such way we commonly call Morihei Ueshiba.
Kyu – students’ degree in Budo. Usually corresponds with some belt color.
Dan – masters degree in Budo. Corresponds with black belt.
Uke – On whom techniques is performed
Shite - Anyone who performs techniques.
Ukemi - Proper fall during techniques performance.
Tanto - Wooden training knife.
Jo – stick with length of about 128 cm. Usually jo reaches armpit and is not be above the chin.
Bokken - wooden training sword.
Kamae - Basic position in Aikido Yoshinkan.
Migi Hanmi – right-sided stable.
Hidari Hanmi) - left-sided rack.
Kihon dosa - Basic exercises.
Kihon waza - Basic techniques.
Suwari waza - techniques that are performed on the knees.
Tachi waza - techniques performed standing.
Kitei waza - Compulsory examination technique.
Shitei waza – Techniques that is chosen by the examiner during the attestation.
Oyo waza - Fast and uninterrupted techniques with an emphasis on efficiency.
Jiyu waza - Continuous free work from a given attack.
Buki waza - techniques with weapons.
Kaeshi waza – counter-techniques
Gosin waza - self-defense techniques.
Kokyu – Power of breathing. Combining body movements with breathing.
Renzoku - Continuous, cyclic exercises.
Ki no nagare - Continuous flow of ki (move dynamics). It means continuity in the techniques execution and continuous control of partner movements.
hajime - start.
mate - finish.
yame - Stop.
kotai - Change roles.
mokuso - Meditation at the beginning, end or even during training. Is performed in Seiza with closed eyes.
rei - Traditional bow. Greeting.
otagai ni rei - Bow to each other.
Sensei ni rei - Bow sense.
hantai - Do the other side.
seiza - Sit in a Seiza position.
anza (Anza) Sit cross-legged
Katate mochi - Capture the wrist.
Ryote Mochi - Capture two wrists.
Katate Aya Mochi - eponymous capture the wrist.
Morote mochi - Capture enemy's arm with both hands.
Hiji Mochi - Capture kimono in the elbow area.
Kata Mochi - Capture shoulder.
Mune Mochi - Capture kimono on chest.
Ushiro Waza Ryote Mochi - attack from behind. Capture two wrists.
Ushiro Waza Ryohiji Mochi - attack from behind. Capture two elbows.
Ushiro Waza Ryokata Mochi - attack from behind. Capture two shoulders.
Ushiro Waza Katate Eri Mochi - attack from behind. Capture wrist and kimono collar.
Ushiro Waza Eri Mochi - attack from behind. Capture kimono collar.
Kicks and punches
Atemi – strike in the unprotected part of the body.
Uchi - hit with the chopping edge of the hand.
Shomen Uchi - Direct strike with hand that cuts.
Yokomen Uchi – sided strike with hand that cuts.
Tsuki - punch.
Shomen Tsuki - punch in the chest.
Shihonage - four sides throw.
Shihonage kuzushi – Unbalancing partner and throw on four sides.
Ikkajo Osae - First control.
Nikajo Osae - Second control.
Sankajo Osae - Third control.
Yonkajo Osae - Fourth Control.
Hijishime - Lever elbow.
Kotegaeshi - throwing by twisting the hand out.
Shomen Iriminage - throwing through direct move in.
Sokumen Iriminage - throwing through the side move in.
Tenchinage – “Sky-land” Throw,
Hijiate Kokyunage - throwing with a strike to the elbow.
Kokyunage - throw with breathing.
Jujigarami - Throw by crossing hands.
Ude garami – Throw with levering arm out.
Onegai shimasu - traditional greeting in the beginning of the training." Please be my partner. "
Domo - Thank you.
Arigato - Thank you (but much more respectful).
Domo arigato - Many thanks (even more respectful).
Domo arigato gozaimashita - Many thanks (for what has already happened). Is traditionally said at the end of training to thank the instructor and students.
Dozo - please. Sometimes used in the context:" Please try to repeat what I have showed "
Gomen nasai - Sorry.
Ohayo gozaimasu - Good morning.